Posts Tagged ‘night flying’

Pilot Certificates, Ratings and Endorsements

Pilot Certificates, Ratings and EndorsementsBasic pilot certificates are:

  • Student
  • Sport
  • Recreational
  • Private
  • Commercial
  • Airline Transport Pilot

Examples of other certificates include:

Pilot certificates have associated ratings. All certificates except the student pilot certificate have at least one aircraft category/class rating (e.g., Private Pilot with ASEL rating). A type rating is required for any aircraft over 12,500 lbs MGTOW and/or with a turbojet powerplant. There are also ratings for operating privileges (e.g., instrument rating).
An endorsement attests to the completion of ground and/or flight training required for airman certification testing, or for specific operating privileges. The endorsements required by 14 CFR Part 61 fall into several broad categories:
Student Pilots: Because a student pilot certificate has no aircraft category and class ratings, operating privileges and limitations for solo are conveyed exclusively through instructor endorsements. Endorsements in this category are usually limited not just to category and class, but also to a specific make and model.

Testing for Certificate or Rating: To take a practical test for a pilot certificate or rating, the applicant must have endorsements attesting to aeronautical knowledge and flight proficiency (including aeronautical experience and practical test preparation required in 14 CFR 61.31(a)(6). The flight instructor applicant endorsements for completing the fundamentals of instruction and spin training also fall into this category.

Recurrent Training: To maintain the operating privileges conferred by a pilot certificate or instrument rating, the pilot must have the appropriate endorsement for satisfactory completion of required recurrent training (e.g., flight review or, if needed, instrument proficiency check).

Aircraft Characteristics: The requirement for a type rating is limited to large (greater than 12,500 lbs MGTOW) and turbojet-powered aircraft. However, certain small and piston-powered aircraft have characteristics that require additional training for safe operation. For example, 14 CFR 61.69 specifies training and experience required for towing a glider. Specific aircraft training requirements are outlined in 14 CFR 61.31, and instructor endorsements that attest to the satisfactory completion of this training are the mechanism used to confer the necessary operating privilege.

Endorsements related to aircraft characteristics include those for complex, high performance, high altitude, tailwheel, and glider ground operations. In addition, 14 CFR 61.31(h) provides for “additional aircraft type-specific training” in those cases where the Administrator has determined that such training is required. Source

Pilot Certificates issued by the FAA have the following characteristics:

  • Grade – determines the kinds of flying a pilot can do
  • Student Pilot – local solo training flights without passengers
  • Recreational Pilot – local uncontrolled day flights 1 passenger
  • Private Pilot – flights worldwide with passengers, non-profit
  • Commercial Pilot – paid flying allowed, can be airline copilot
  • Airline Transport Pilot – paid flights, can be airline captain

Rating refers to what aircraft a pilot can fly and how – VFR or IFR
Category – Airplane, Glider, Rotorcraft, Lighter Than Air…
Class – example: Airplane Single or Multi-Engine Land/Sea
Type – needed for each turbojet or heavier than 12,500 lbs
Instrument- separate for each Class and Type Rating

The Certificate Grade is the hardest one to change. In order to get a new Grade Certificate you need to meet all the training and experience requirements for that certificate. The process is called upgrading and requires you to have to have the certificate with a lower grade. Student Pilots and Recreational Pilots can upgrade to Private Pilot. Only Private Pilots can upgrade to Commercial Pilot. Finally only Commercial Pilots can upgrade to ATP (Air Transport Pilot). You are always required to take a knowledge test and a practical test in order to upgrade. Source

Adding Ratings within the same aircraft category is significantly easier. Except for the initial instrument rating, there are no knowledge tests or extra aeronautical experience requirements. An instructor endorsement and a practical test is all it takes, and yes – there is some textbook study for the practical test.

Pilot ratings are additional qualifications that you can add to an existing Pilot’s license to enhance your abilities as a pilot. The examples are: Instrument Rating and Multi Engine Rating.

Instrument Rating (IR)

An Instrument Rating (IR) is what’s required to be able to fly an airplane inside and through the clouds, and at times of low visibility. The training involves the pilot to learn how to fly an airplane simply by looking at flight instruments inside the cockpit. If you are on a career path to be an airline pilot then this is a must. IR is a requirement to get a job with an airline, and also to qualify for an Airline Transport Pilot. This is usually obtained after your get your Private Pilot License, and before you get your Commercial Pilot License.

Multi-Engine Rating

Most of your training will be done on single engine airplanes (SE), like Cessna and Piper. However, to qualify for an airline pilot position, you will need to be qualified to fly airplanes with multiple engines. Most airline airplanes have more than one engine. And this training is called Multi-Engine Rating (ME). Most people get their Multi-Engine Rating along with or right after their Commercial Pilot License.

Night Rating

A Night Rating allows the pilot to operate an Aircraft at night and is an excellent way of building hours in a meaningful way. The Private Pilots License syllabus does not include any requirement for night training for the issue of the license. However, should the private pilot wish to fly as PIC at night with or without passengers then the night rating must be obtained.

Pre Entry Requirements:
Night is defined as ’15 minutes after sunset until 15 minutes before sunrise’. To be able to commence training for the night rating, the applicant must be able to produce evidence of having completed a total of 50 hours as Pilot of airplanes and have at least 20 hours as Pilot-in-Command of which 10 hours must have been gained since making an application for the issue of a PPL(A).

Training Required:
The night rating requirements are that a person must complete 10 hours of basic Instrument instruction, 5 of which can be in a Registered Instrument Trainer. After this the Night rating test and the Night cross country is completed.

Building Night Flying Time

At least 3 hours dual instruction including at least one hour of night navigation, 5 Take offs and landings as PIC, and in at least one instance take off and landing should be separate by a complete departure from, and rejoining of, the aerodrome traffic pattern.

Instructor Rating

An Instructors rating allows the holder of the rating to give Flight Instruction to student pilots. It is an excellent way to build hours, but should not be taken lightly, or undertaken simply as a “means to an end”. Every good pilot is not necessarily a good teacher/instructor. In short, don’t do it just to build up hours – you should only become an instructor if teaching is your passion.

Flying is like any other work activity; in the sense that the better qualified you are the better your chances of finding work. An instructor’s rating will give you the edge over a pilot who does not have the rating, providing you with one more avenue that you can use to gain hours and experience. It also adds experience and value to your CV and career in aviation. The instructor’s rating consists of two basic elements:

  • Theory and examinations
  • Practical flying
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Aviator Flight Training Academy offers professional pilot training programs with a minimum of 200 hours of multi-engine time. The flight school has a state of the art 37,000 square foot facility, featuring a CRJ Level 5 Flight Training Device (Simulator), large classrooms and individual briefing rooms.

Aviator offers a full line of flight training courses to meet the individual needs of each student.

Multi, Instrument, & Commercial
  • 150 Hours of Multi-Engine
  • Cross Country flying coast-to-coast
  • Price includes flight instruction and all ground instruction
  • Course time is eight weeks or less

Writtens and Checkrides are extra
NO FTDs (Simulators) are used towards flight time
To enroll you must hold your PPL and 100 hours total time
Eight weeks of housing included (one person per bedroom)
$ 29,995.00
Financing Available for those who qualify

Multi_Engine Rating
  • 10 Hours Multi-Engine
  • Pre & Post Flight, Ground Instruction
  • NO FTDs (Simulators) are used towards flight time

$ 3,100.00
Financing Available for those who qualify

Multi-Engine Instructor Rating

5 Hours Multi-Engine
Pre & Post Flight, Ground Instruction
NO FTDs (Simulators) are used towards flight time
$ 1,995.00
Financing Available for those who qualify

ATP Multi-Engine Rating

10 Hours Multi-Engine
Pre & Post Flight, Ground Instruction
NO FTDs (Simulators) are used towards flight time
$ 3,100.00
Financing Available for those who qualify

Instructor Ratings

Flight Instructor
Flight Instructor Instrument

Multi-Engine Instructor
NO FTDs (Simulators) are used towards flight time
$ 7,000.00
Financing Available for those who qualify

Multi-Engine & Initial Instrument Rating

50 Hours Multi-Engine
NO FTDs (Simulators) are used towards flight time
$ 15,500.00
Financing Available for those who qualify

Writtens and Checkrides are extra
No Simulators are used for flight time



Pilots Must Understand And Evaluate Bad Weather Conditions And Night Flying

Pilots Must Understand And Evaluate Bad Weather Conditions And Night FlyingMany pilots have had the experience of hearing about a weather-related accident and thinking themselves immune from a similar experience. Interviews with pilots who narrowly escaped aviation weather accidents indicate that many of the unfortunate pilots thought the same thing — that is, until they found themselves in weather conditions they did not expect and could not safely handle.

Given the broad availability of weather information, why do general aviation (GA) pilots continue to find themselves surprised and trapped by adverse weather conditions? Ironically, the very abundance of weather information might be part of the answer: with many weather providers and weather products, it can be very difficult for pilots to screen out non-essential data, focus on key facts, and then correctly evaluate the risk resulting from a given set of circumstances.
With improper equipment, ineptitude on the part of the pilot or bad weather, night flying can certainly be dangerous. However, with precautionary planning and with an understanding of night vision shortcomings, night flying can be one of the most pleasant experiences connected with aviation.

About one-tenth of all general aviation accidents occur at night, while fewer than 10 percent of the flying is done after dark. Presuming that night flying is more dangerous than day flying on the basis of statistics is a fallacy. The airplane does not discriminate between light and dark.

Conditions of night flight are different from daytime flying and it is the pilot’s knowledge, or lack of it, combined with a lack of visual clues that present an extra challenge.

A pilot may be subjected to times when the destination airplane lies beyond the rays of the setting sun. Perhaps an engagement becomes a compelling reason to venture out into the black of night.
Flying at night in the mountains is a matter of determining the weather condition to arrive at a personal go/no-go decision. For those who decide to fly at night, an understanding of night vision differences and adjusting the flight operation accordingly, will increase the margin of safety.

Perceive –Process –Perform Risk Management Framework

Perceive: weather hazards that could adversely affect your flight.
Process: this information to determine whether the hazards create risk, which is the potential impact of a hazard that is not controlled or eliminated.
Perform: by acting to eliminate the hazard or mitigate the risk

For many GA (general aviation) pilots, the FAA Flight Service Station (FSS) remains the single most widely used source of comprehensive weather information.

The specific weather information pack aged into a standard briefing includes a weather synopsis, sky conditions (clouds), and visibility and weather conditions at the departure, en route, and destination points. Also included are adverse conditions, altimeter settings, cloud tops, dew point, icing conditions, surface winds, winds aloft, temperature, thunderstorm activity, precipitation, precipitation intensity, visibility obscuration, pilot reports (PIREPs), AIRMETs, SIGMETs, Convective SIGMETS, and Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs), including any temporary flight restrictions (TFRs).

A few guidelines for getting weather data from FSS:
  • DO: be sure to get the right FSS. When you dial the standard number, 1-800-WX-BRIEF from a cell phone, this number will connect you to the FSS associated with your cell phone’s area code – not necessarily to the FSS nearest to your present position. If you are using a cell phone outside your normal calling area, check the Airport/Facility Directory to find the specific telephone number for the FSS you need to reach.
  • DO: know what you need, so you can request the right briefing “package” (outlook, standard, or abbreviated).
  • DO: use the standard flight plan form to provide the background the briefer needs to obtain the right information for you. Review the form before you call, and develop an estimate for items such as altitude, route, and estimated time en route so you can be sure of getting what you need to know.
  • DO: be honest – with yourself and with the briefer – about any limitations in pilot skill or aircraft capability.
  • DO: let the FSS specialist know if you are new to the area or unfamiliar with the typical weather patterns, including seasonal characteristics. If you are unfamiliar with the area, have a VFR or IFR navigation chart available while you listen to help sharpen your mental picture of where the weather hazards may be in relation to your departure airport, proposed route of flight and destination.
  • Do: Ask questions, be assertive. Smart pilot ask questions to resolve ambiguities about weather.
The three basic elements of weather are:
  1. Temperature: (warm or cold);
  2. Wind: (a vector with speed and direction); and
  3. Moisture: (or humidity).

Temperature differences (e.g., uneven heating) support the development of low pressure systems, which can affect wide areas. Surface low pressure systems usually have fronts associated with them, with a “front” being the zone between two air masses that contain different combinations of the three basic elements (temperature, wind, and moisture).

What can weather do to you? Temperature, wind, and moisture combine to varying degrees to create conditions that affect pilots. The range of possible combinations is nearly infinite, but weather really affects pilots in just three ways. Specifically, the three basic weather elements can:

  • Reduce visibility
  • Create turbulence
  • Reduce aircraft performance
How do you evaluate weather data?

One approach to practical weather analysis is to review weather data in terms of how current and forecast conditions will affect visibility, turbulence, and aircraft performance for your specific flight.

Perform – Making a Weather Plan

The third step in practical preflight weather planning is to perform an honest evaluation of whether your skill and/or aircraft capability are up to the challenge posed by this particular set of weather conditions. It is very important to consider whether the combined “pilot-aircraft team” is sufficient. For example, you may be a very experienced, proficient, and current pilot, but your weather flying ability is still limited if you are flying a 1980s-model aircraft with no weather avoidance gear. On the other hand, you may have a new technically advanced aircraft with moving map GPS, weather datalink, and autopilot – but if you do not have much weather flying experience, you must not count on the airplane’s capability to fully compensate for your own lack of experience. You must also ensure that you are fully proficient in the use of onboard equipment, and that it is functioning properly.

One way to “self-check” your decision (regardless of your experience) is to ask yourself if the flight has any chance of appearing in the next day’s newspaper. If the result of the evaluation process leaves you in any doubt, then you need to develop safe alternatives. Think of the preflight weather plan as a strategic, “big picture” exercise. The goal is to ensure that you have identified all the weather-related hazards for this particular flight, and planned for ways to eliminate or mitigate each one. To this end, there are several items you should include in the weather flying plan:

Escape Options: Know where you can find good weather within your aircraft’s range and endurance capability. Where is it? Which direction do you turn to get there? How long will it take to get there? When the weather is IMC (ceiling 1,000 or less and visibility 3 nm or less), identify an acceptable alternative airport for each 25-30 nm segment of your route.
Reserve Fuel: Knowing where to find VFR weather does you no good unless you have enough fuel to reach it. Flight planning for only a legal fuel reserve could significantly limit your options if the weather deteriorates. More fuel means access to more alternatives. Having plenty of fuel also spares you the worry (and distraction) of fearing fuel exhaustion when weather has already increased your cockpit workload.
Terrain Avoidance: Know how low you can go without encountering terrain and/or obstacles. Consider a terrain avoidance plan for any flight that involves:

  • Weather at or below MVFR (ceiling 1,000 to 3,000; visibility 3 to 5 miles)
  • A temperature/dew point spread of 4° C. or less;
  • Any expected precipitation; or
  • Operating at night.

Know the minimum safe altitude for each segment of your flight. All VFR sectional charts include a maximum elevation figure (MEF) in each quadrangle. The MEF is determined by locating the highest obstacle (natural or man-made) in each quadrangle, and rounding up by 100 to 300 feet. Source


Even a competent attitude-instrument pilot will need to use his outside vision during a night flight, if only in the transition during takeoff and landing.
What you see, or don’t see, in the dark is dependent on the state of dark adaptation of your eyes.

If you enter a dark area, your vision improves slowly. After six to seven minutes the eyes are 100 times more sensitive than when you entered the dark. Full adaptation takes 30 minutes, at which time the rods of the eye are 100,000 time more sensitive. This is due to the buildup of a photosensitive chemical called visual purple, the key to night vision. Visual purple is dependent on vitamin A (carrots, eggs, milk, cheese and most vegetables). Vitamin A cannot be stored by the body; it is necessary to eat well-balanced meals before night flying.

Although it takes 30 minutes for dark adaptation to occur, it can be lost in a second or two of exposure to bright light. Minimize the use of white light in the cockpit and keep it as dim as possible.

Dark adaptation is an independent process in each eye. If you are exposed t light, close one eye to preserve half your dark adaptation.


The cones of the eye, used for day vision, provide peripheral vision. Night vision uses rods. This creates a blind spot in the center of the eye at night. If you detect something with peripheral vision, the natural tendency is to turn and look directly at it. Night vision is impossible at the center of the eye, so a technique called “off-center scanning” must be developed. Look six to 12 degrees away from the object you wish to see.


A visual illusion may occur at night if you stare at one light for a long period of time. Involuntary muscle twitches cause the light to be displayed on a different portion of the eye, creating false motion, where the light appears to move. Avoid autokinesis by the off-center scanning technique.


Before departing from a mountain airport at night, firmly fix in your mind the nature of the terrain and obstructions adjacent to the airport. Pilots have no intention of making an emergency landing shortly after takeoff, especially at night, but it does not hurt to survey the terrain during daylight conditions to form a plan of action.

With the interior lights adjusted to the minimum brightness that affords instrument readability, initiate a normal takeoff.
Acceleration error in the attitude indicator will cause an indication of a higher nose attitude than during a regular climb. As a consequence, some pilots have lowered the nose to the normal attitude and have flown into the ground.
The moment the airplane leaves the ground on a dark night, it is enveloped in black. Outside visual reference becomes impossible. Maintain a positive rate of climb based on the airspeed indication, regardless of the attitude indicator display.


If you become disoriented during the climb out, terrain clearance becomes a big concern. Fly toward the rotating beacon. At airstrips without lighting, fly toward any light on the ground.


Proper preflight planning includes studying charts and developing a plan of action. Still, at some time during a night flight, you are going to experience a moment of fear arising from your concern about terrain clearance.
If there are any light around, use them. Fly directly toward the light. As you approach this light, select another light. If the light flickers or disappears, there is something between you and the light. Immediately choose another light to fly toward.
If there is only one usable light in the area, a shuttle climb in a holding pattern may be the most prudent course of action.

To perform a shuttle climb, make a 90-degree turn (direction depends on obstructions) and immediately turn the opposite direction for 270 degrees. This is the same as a 180-degree turn, but keeps the airplane confined to a small geographical area.
Before passing beyond the ground light, perform a 180-degree turn back to the ground light. Continue this maneuvering while climbing to a safe en route altitude before proceeding on course.


It is difficult to see and avoid weather at night. The first indication of a cloud may be a glow emanating from the navigation lights, or a brilliant flash of the strobes being diffused throughout a cloud.

VFR pilots should do an immediate 180-degree turn.
Restricted visibility conditions become apparent with the gradual disappearance of lights on the ground or when they become fuzzy and flow.
Remember, the horizontal visibility through a restriction such as fog, haze or smoke is must less than when looking down through it from above.
Pilots get into trouble trying to land at an airport with fog because they fly over and can see the runway, but when on final approach they can’t see anything.


Distances at night are deceptive, due to lack of illumination and inability of the pilot to judge them by the usual method of comparing the size of different objects. At night, fly towards an airport light and make a standard pattern, rather than attempting a straight-in approach. The perception of distance can be dealt with by flying the downwind leg until the touchdown point is half-way between the wing tip and tail. They turn onto the base leg.
The only way to approach a runway in the mountains at night, with complete safety, is to incorporate the “spot method for landing” technique. The flare and landing is accomplished in the same manner as during the day. There may be a tendency to look too far down the runway, causing the flare to be too high.

  • Always carry a workable flashlight (You can recognize the pilot who has flown at night without a flashlight. He’s the one that has two or more flashlights in his bag).
  • Close one eye when exposed to bright light.
  • Force the eyes to view off-center.
  • Blink the eyes if they become blurred.
  • Do not attempt violent or abrupt maneuvers at night.
  • Watch for the disappearance of ground lights or an area of glow around the navigation lights. This indicates enteringinstrument conditions.
  • Remember the deceptiveness of altitude and speed at night.
  • A normal approach looks steeper at night, creating an illusion of overshooting.
  • Distance judgment at night is less accurate than by day. A simple visual assessment can lead to a premature descent. source Night Flying
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What Pilots Should Know About Night Flying

What Pilots Should Know About Night FlyingVisual Flight Rules (VFR) – set of regulations under which a pilot operates an aircraft in weather conditions generally clear enough to allow the pilot to see where the aircraft is going. Specifically, the weather must be better than basic VFR weather minimal, i.e. in visual meteorological conditions (VMC), as specified in the rules of the relevant aviation authority. The pilot must be able to operate the aircraft with visual reference to the ground, and by visually avoiding obstructions and other aircraft.


FAA’s Instrument Flying Handbook defines IFR as: “Rules and regulations established by the FAA to govern flight under conditions in which flight by outside visual reference is not safe. IFR flight depends upon flying by reference to instruments in the flight deck, and navigation is accomplished by reference to electronic signals
Flying at night requires an understanding of how darkness affects a pilot’s vision and what you can do to make sure you make the most of your night-limited vision.

The most important aspect of night flying with respect to vision acuity is to realize that it takes 30 to 45 minutes for your eyes to fully adapt to minimal light conditions. And if you look directly at a bright light for more than about a second, you’ll need to start the clock all over again and reacclimatize to the darkness.

That’s why it’s important to turn down cockpit lighting at night and avoid looking directly at bright lights. This process should start on the ramp before you ever climb into the cockpit, giving your eyes time to adjust before takeoff. Once in the air, if you need a flashlight, use one that allows you to turn down the gain so you don’t overdo the brightness and start back at square one.

It’s also important to understand that it can take longer to find certain controls in a dark cockpit and plan for that fact. If you’re a renter and fly a number of different airplanes, you’ll want to be certain you are completely familiar with the cockpit of any aircraft you will fly at night.

One way to accomplish this is to perform a blind cockpit check. To do this, sit behind the controls of the airplane during the day, close your eyes and try to locate the throttle, mixture and prop controls; light switches; landing gear, carb heat and flap levers; radios and GPS navigators; critical circuit breakers; altimeter and heading indicator knobs, and anything else you’ll need to manipulate in flight.

Subtle differences even among the same type of airplane can add to the time it takes to find a particular knob or dial. If you can locate them all bind-folded, you’ll be much better prepared when flying at night. Source

Flying VFR Like IFR
Identify the Risks

The key to making VFR flight safer is to fly like the airlines do. Of course, that’s not always possible. A Bonanza pilot flying a 500 nm trip to an unfamiliar small airport doesn’t have the second pilot, the second (turbofan) engine, the dispatchers watching his back or the same level of required recurrent training as airline pilots have. While flights of small airplanes come to harm for many reasons, the biggest risk factors can be summed up in three main categories: weather, terrain and loss of control. If we were to remove these offenders from the record, light airplane accidents likely would be cut by far more than half.

Use the Tools of IFR

The key to far safer VFR flight is to fly predictably and to avoid the big areas of risk. That means borrowing everything you can from the IFR playbook to keep from hitting the ground unexpectedly, which never ends well.

Fly the Airways

A great approach on this flight if you’re VFR-only is to ditch the “direct to” button on the navigator and fly airways. I can’t stress enough how much just this tactic can help. For one, most airways will follow the lowest terrain along your route of flight (that’s why they were invented, remember), so you don’t have to figure out your terrain clearance. The airways have done it for you. In good weather this helps you figure out your desired altitudes ahead of time, so you know if there’s a healthy climb required ahead. When the weather’s bad, it gives you an out.

Stock Your Tool Bag

Being too low en route seldom (not never) causes accidents in clear weather. It’s when the weather gets dicey that things get hairy. The two biggest tools to have at your disposal are, one, being able to keep your airplane under control if you somehow lose visual reference and, two, having a way of knowing where the terrain is to avoid hitting it if you were to go IMC. If you’re flying the airways when this happens, unless there’s severe ice or convection, there’s no emergency involved. You just keep flying the airplane by reference to the instruments. Remember, the single biggest risk with inadvertent VFR into IMC is losing control of the airplane. Source

Individual Flight Training Courses at Aviator Flight Training Academy

The Aviator Flight Training Academy offers a full line of flight training courses to meet the individual needs of each student.

Multi, Instrument, & Commercial
  • 150 Hours of Multi-Engine
  • Cross Country flying coast-to-coast
  • Price includes flight instruction and all ground instruction
  • Course time is eight weeks or less
  • Writtens and Checkrides are extra
  • NO FTDs (Simulators) are used towards flight time
  • To enroll you must hold your PPL and 100 hours total time
  • Eight weeks of housing included (one person per bedroom)

$ 33,561.00
Financing Available for those who qualify

Multi_Engine Rating
  • 10 Hours Multi-Engine
  • Pre & Post Flight, Ground Instruction
  • NO FTDs (Simulators) are used towards flight time
  • $ 3,100.00
  • Financing Available for those who qualify
  • Multi-Engine Instructor Rating
  • 5 Hours Multi-Engine
  • Pre & Post Flight, Ground Instruction
  • NO FTDs (Simulators) are used towards flight time

$ 1,995.00
Financing Available for those who qualify

ATP Multi-Engine Rating
  • 10 Hours Multi-Engine
  • Pre & Post Flight, Ground Instruction
  • NO FTDs (Simulators) are used towards flight time

$ 3,100.00
Financing Available for those who qualify

Instructor Ratings
  • Flight Instructor
  • Flight Instructor Instrument
  • Multi-Engine Instructor
  • NO FTDs (Simulators) are used towards flight time
  • $ 7,000.00
  • Financing Available for those who qualify
  • Multi-Engine & Initial Instrument Rating
  • 50 Hours Multi-Engine
  • NO FTDs (Simulators) are used towards flight time

$ 15,500.00
Financing Available for those who qualify

Writtens and Checkrides are extra
No Simulators are used for flight time

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